Author Archives: Clinical Nutrition Support Team

Guidelines for Abstract Submission 2023

Important Dates & Deadlines
Call for Abstract: 24th May 2023
Abstract Deadline: 1st August 2023 (23:59 GMT)                                                                              Author notification: 1st September 2023

Technical Information
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  • Abstracts have to be submitted online using the link that will be provided only after AICNU 2023 conference registration.
  • Failure to follow the abstract submission guidelines may result in disqualification.

Submission Process
Please read all the online abstract submission guidelines carefully before preparing your abstract.

  • Delegates who would like to present their work at the AICNU, are invited to submit research abstracts for consideration by the scientific committee.
  • Abstract submission will be possible only after registration for the conference.
  • All registered participants will be notified with the conference ID number and the link for abstract submission will be enabled.
  • Abstracts will be accepted on a wide range of topics in clinical nutrition.
  • Case Vignettes and review articles will not be accepted.
  • Abstract submission can be done under three categories:                                                            1. Practising Dietitians / Nutritionists                                                                                                    2. PhD Scholars                                                                                                                                          3. Postgraduate students
  • The length of the abstract should not be more than 350 words (headers, title, author details, etc. excluded). This includes invisible characters, such as spaces and line breaks. 
  • Please refer to the word count of the AICNU online abstract submission portal as slight differences may occur when counting with Microsoft office WORD or similar programs.
  • Abstracts must contain research data and meet international ethical standards.
  • Abbreviations should be defined.
  • Trade names cannot be mentioned in the title. However, trade names in brackets will be accepted in the body of the text.
  • The abstract needs to be structured as follows:

     Structure of the Abstract
    Structure Remarks
     Rationale 1-2 sentences that clearly indicate the scientific question of the study and its clinical (or other) importance.
     Methods Sufficient information to understand the experimental design, the analytical techniques, and the statistics used in the study.
     Results Objective data to answer the scientific question(s). 
     Conclusions Only conclusions of the study directly supported by the results, along with implications for clinical practice, avoiding speculation and over-generalization.  
      Please avoid tables in the abstract. 
  •  Abstracts can be saved in the “Draft status” to be re-edited and modified until the submission deadline (1st August 2023 (23:59 GMT)). Abstracts cannot be edited after final submission.
  • Abstracts fulfilling all criteria must be saved in “Final Submission” status. Only abstracts in “Final Submission” status will be considered for review by the scientific committee.
  • Once submitted, an abstract number will be generated, and the author will be notified.

Presentation of abstracts

  • Abstracts for oral and E-poster presentations will be selected by the scientific committee.
  • Authors of selected abstracts will be notified about the presentation format and guidelines.


  • Accepted abstracts will be published on the AICNU website.

Additional Information

  • Abstract submission is only possible after registration for the conference.
  • Please review your abstract for spelling, grammar, or scientific mistakes, as it will be assessed by the scientific committee exactly as submitted. Linguistic accuracy is your responsibility. No proofreading will be done.
  • No changes can be made to the abstract after the “Final Submission”. 
  • The reviewers will judge the abstracts according to the relevance to the objectivity of statements, description of what was done, suitability of methods to aims, conclusions and confirmed by objective results, ethics, scientific value, potential clinical value, originality of work, the standard of English, and overall impression.
  • Submitting authors of abstracts accepted for oral / E-poster presentation will be notified by 1st September 2023. All notifications will be sent to the e-mail address given on the registration form.
  • If you want to withdraw your abstract, a written statement quoting the reasons for this decision must be sent to the Conference Secretariat at  before 15th August 2023.



The objective of this cross-sectional study is:
1. To analyze most sensitive risk factors for aspiration in enterally fed patients
2. To identify clinically more efficient method of enteral feed administration (volume v/s rate based)
3. To compare efficacy of volume v/s rate based enteral feeds in terms of clinical and nutritional


In first phase of this study (duration 4 months), an aspiration risk assessment scale was developed and administered on all patients (n=92) initiated on enteral feeds in the MICU. Using Fisher‘s Exact test, most sensitive factors for aspiration risk were identified. On the basis of which, in second phase, 48 patients (in the following period of 3 months) identified to have high and low risk of aspiration (≥3 and ≤2 most sensitive factors present)  were kept on rate based (n=25) and volume based (n=23) enteral feeding method respectively. Their clinical and nutritional outcomes were compared using Chi-Square test.

Results and Discussion

The Fisher‘s Exact test revealed delayed gastric emptying, increased gastric residual volume, reduced level of consciousness and ill oral health to be statistically significant factors (p <0.05) for aspiration risk. Comparative analysis of clinical outcomes in volume based v/s rate based enteral feeding showed average length of ventilation 3.66 and 4.03 days, ventilator free days being 4.00 and 3.68, ICU Length of stay (LOS) 7.67 and 7.77 days, total LOS 13.26 and 17.45 days
Whilst comparison of nutritional outcomes depicted average percentage achieved calories 96.96% and 92.35%, percentage achieved protein 98.41% and 87.35% of nutritional requirements calculated using simplistic weight based equation, in volume based and rate based enteral feeding respectively. The average volume of feed provided per day was 1407.57ml and 1048.57ml, average hours of meeting up calorie and protein requirements were 55 and 62 for volume and rate based fed patients.


Aspiration risk assessment is fundamental in planning clinical care. In the absence of high risk factors of aspiration, patients may have better clinical and nutritional outcomes with volume based enteral feeding.

A dietary assessment of non alcoholic fatty liver disease in a Sri Lankan cohort: case control study


Sri Lanka has rapidly rising incidence of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and its associated complications. This study evaluates dietary and lifestyle risk factors in an already diagnosed cohort of patients with NAFLD.


50 patients with alcohol consumption not exceeding the safe limits and having ultrasonically detected fatty liver (NAFLD cases) from January to September 2015 were compared with age and the gender-matched patients who had normal ultra sound scans (control). A pre tested general questionnaire and a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to collect information and Food Base, 2000 analytical software was used to calculate per day macro nutrient consumption.


The mean age of the cases and the controls were 40 years. The mean BMI in cases and controls were 27.7(SD: ±4.6) and 25.2 ( SD : ±4.3 ) (p= 0.006) respectively. Prevalence of diabetes was higher among NAFLD cases (60% vs. 18%, P<0.000). In univariate analysis NAFLD cases had higher total energy consumption (2580.7 kcal vs. 1905.8 kcal, p=0.000) and individual macronutrient consumption. They had higher sweet consumption (72% vs 22%, p=0.000), but reduced fruits (48% vs 14%, p=0.000) and vegetables (48% vs 6%, p=0.000) consumption. In multivariate model, consumption of sweets (OR : 79.9, p= 0.027 ), vegetables (OR: 0.007, p=0.028) and fruits (OR : 0.014, p=0.031) individually predicted NAFLD.


Increased consumption of sweets with reduced consumption of fruits and vegetables could be a risk factor for NAFLD.

Estimation of target calories & proteins achieved in critically ill obese patients receiving enteral nutrition (EN) and its impact on clinical outcomes

Estimation & provision of nutritional support for critically ill obese patients is a challenge due to the unique metabolic changes that occur. This study assesses the target calories & proteins achieved in patients receiving EN & its effect on clinical outcomes in the obese critically ill.

Retrospective study conducted from January 2014 to March 2016 in the ICU of a tertiary care hospital. 35 adult obese patients (BMI≥25) in ICU receiving EN for ≥ 3 days were included. The patients were stratified according to percentage of target calories achieved (Group A<90% & Group B>90%). The goal calories & protein intake for both groups was approximately 20calories & 1.3g/kg of estimated body weight per day. Baseline demographics, nutritional status and EN practice parameters were collected and analysed. The length of stay (LOS) and ventilator free days were evaluated.

24 male & 11 female patients aged 56.6±14y were included. Subjective global assessment revealed that 51% (18) were moderately malnourished. Mean BMI of Group A (n=17) was 29.07±3.93 and that of Group B (n=18) was 27.3±2.56. Group A received an average 72% & 42% (1110±255calories; 43±10.7g) of target calories & proteins in 9.94±4.19days. Group B had higher target calories & proteins of 109% & 71% (1507±188calories; 64±10.2g) delivered in 22±20.9days. In Group B, feeds were initiated later (44.2±103hours) & 72% were on EN for ≥10days in comparison to Group A (28.2±33.4hours & 53%). Mean feed interruption was more in the Group A (25.2±25.8hours). Hypocaloric Group A had a shorter average LOS & higher ventilator free days in ICU (13.5±6.03 & 5.4±18.4 days versus 24.8±21.9 & 4.8±8.08days). Mortality of 26% was observed, of which 23% were male & 3% female.

This study data suggests that hypocaloric EN support in critically ill obese patients may be associated with reduced LOS in the ICU but higher administration of protein can mitigate loss of lean body mass and result in net protein anabolism to improve clinical outcomes.


To study the correlation of NAFLD with BMI and SERUM LIPIDS


Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as an important public health problem across the globe and is associated with high risk for cardiovascular disease. NAFLD refers to wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from steatosis to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. The aim is to study  the incidence of NAFLD and its association with age, BMI and Lipid profile.


Patients refered from the Hepatology OPD with NAFLD from May 2015  to December 2015 were collected. Patients aged between 20-65 yrs with the following reports FBS, lipid profile, LFT (ALP),  USG reporting  fatty liver changes only were included.


Of the 50 patients referred to the nutrition department, 30 were recruited (n=30).  The mean age is 43.1+9.78y {> 45 years 64% (16)}, 67% (20) were males, mean BMI is 30 ± 5.7 , 20% (4) were with normal BMI and 80% (26) were overweight and obese. NAFLD was reported highest in younger adults 53.33% (16). Fatty liver grade I, II & III were 53.33% (16),  43.33% (13) & 3.33% (1) respectively. Chi-square test between fatty liver changes as per BMI was not significant (p 0.574). Sample with higher cholestrol: HDL ratio was 84% (26) and  elevated triglycerides was 60% (18). One-way ANOVA for TG as per BMI (p = 0.531). Deranged ALP was found in 16%  (5) and 23 % (7) had Diabetes. Summary of One-way ANOVA for Blood sugars as per BMI (p=.939). Functional bowel disorder was reported in 23% (7). All the  samples selected were sedentary workers. Macro nutrient intake showed 70-80% of Calories were coming from Carbohydrates. The intake of fiber  was below the recommendations.


Approximately 1 of  8 NAFLD patients coming to the tertiary liver center has normal BMI.    There is no significant influence of BMI on fatty liver and lipid profile. Rather than BMI visceral adiposity (measured as waist circumference),  is more lipolitically active than subcutaneous fat . Lifestyle modification aimed at weight loss and physical activity is vital in managing all patients with NAFLD irrespective of their underlying liver histology, which should also be evaluated after six months.



Under nutrition is known to be associated with a greater risk of post operative complications and higher mortality rates in patients with liver disease. This study aims to improve the post operative outcome.


A retrospective study was conducted in ILC from January 2014 to March 2016.The participants were selected in the age group between  20 to 70years of age admitted to ILC  were followed in the outpatient, inpatient  liver care unit where liver transplant was indicated. Anthropometric nutritional evaluation for 113 patients were carried out .The assessment included were weight (kg), height (cm), mid arm circumference, MUAMC, TSF, HGMS and nutritional counseling was carried out to all patients. The mean, standard deviation were obtained  for all anthropometric indicators which were continuous variables.  Statistical analysis using  Kolmogrov  test were performed


There were 97% male, 15% female aged 48.3±11.2 out of 113 patients. The mean  BMI, TSF, MAC, MUAMC, HGMS, weight loss were 22.6±17.7,37.6±16.7 ,28.25±10.5,37.6±22.2,30.8±14.7,23±11.5 respectively.15.9%,23.8%,41.5%,18.8% patients nutritional status were normal, mild, moderate, severe respectively.20-25kcal/kg/Bw+20% extra,25-30kcal/kg/Bw+20%extra,30-35kcal/kg/Bw+20%extra,35-40kcal/kg/bw+20% extra suggested for normal, mild, moderate and severe risk patients respectively. 1.2-1.5/kg/Bw  protein were prescribed with  nutritional supplements  3 to 10g,10-20g,30-40g,40-60g protein per day for normal, mild ,moderate and severe risk patients respectively. Data were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. We found 2.3%,8.7%,36.3%,36.2%  patients were undernourished  as per parameters  BMI,TSF,MAC,MUAMC respectively.  This condition is basic indicator of surgical risk, making nutritional support an important aspect of therapy for patients with  chronic end stage liver disease and  pre organ liver transplant


Patients with chronic liver disease experience a significant degree of malnutrition which makes nutritional support an important aspect of therapy. Despite the difficulties in assessment, we recommend that a  simple , in expensive non invasive techniques such as  anthropometric measurements, hand grip strength test,6 minutes walk test are recommended to evaluate the effects , adequacy of nutritional interventions before liver transplantation and nutritional counseling leads to decrease nutritional risk .

Co-relation of FAACT Appetite Scale with Nutritional intake of Cancer Patients

Ms .S .Amena Omer*, Mrs. H. Shyam, Ms. M. Kosi Reddy,
Clinical Dietitian
Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad, India

Background: Anorexia is a common symptom among patients with prolonged illness. It leads to malnutrition of energy, proteins and other nutrients. Prolonged anorexia in cancer patients can lead to a complex syndrome called ‘’anorexia-cachexia syndrome’’. Anorexia/Cachexia adversely affects the patient’s body form, function, response to (chemotherapy or radiation) treatment, quality of life and survival. Hence, in order to provide effective health care, nutritional status of patients, their nutrient intake and appetite should be assessed periodically though out their treatment and intervened with nutritional, medical or psychological support.

Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) appetite scale is 12 questions based patient rated, symptom specific measure for appetite, and distress from anorexia of patients who complain of lack of appetite. The FAACT appetite scale assesses anorexia-related symptoms and differentiates their severity by assigning a score ranging from 0 (worst response) to 4 (best response). Therefore, it could be proposed that a score ≤24 may be sufficient to make a diagnosis of anorexia.

Aim: The aim of this study was to co-relate the FAACT score for anorexia with patient’s nutrient intake.

Methods: A study was carried out where the FAACT questionnaire was administered to 100 cancer in-patients receiving chemotherapy or radiation as treatment. Their 24 hour calorie and protein intake and anthropometric measures (BMI) were recorded in order to correlate it with the FAACT score.

Results: The FAACT scale assessed 57% of the sample to be anorexic with a score ≤24. Their BMI was in the range of 15-32kgs/m2 with an average of 24kgs/m2. They were also found to have a low protein intake with an average of 41 % of their RDA (1.2gms/IBW) and low calorie intake of an average of 65% of their RDA (30kcals/IBW).Thus, rightly co-relating the FAACT anorexia score to the low nutrient intake.
Similarly, those with a FAACT score of above 24 were found to have a protein intake of an average 97% of their RDA (1.2gms/IBW) and a calorie intake of an average 88% of their RDA (30kcals/IBW). Their BMI was found to be in the range of 15-34kgs/m2 and an average of 25kgs/m2. Thus making them more tolerant and receptive to cancer therapy with an increased rate of survival.

Conclusion: The FAACT scale helps in assessing anorexia /cachexia in cancer patients and co-related well with the high incidence of low calorie and low protein intake percentage to RDA. Thus categorizing them to be anorexic and nutrient deficient.